“We want a blessed mother, we ask God for the sun, we want both oil and cheese as gifts for children, and old houses and old masters, the heroes of tomorrow's fairy tales.” Suha Akın's documentary When the Fogs Are Expelled begins with the oblivion of the children's tradition of expelling the fog in the highlands. It's also an ancient shamanic tradition and it shows us how nature dominates people's lives. The psychological difficulties brought by the fog and longing for the sun were reflected in the culture of the people of the region. It is not always human to dominate nature. Thus, the Eastern Black Sea
Region is the place where difficult conditions are most reflected in the identity. Although the human-nature struggle shows itself in every field, it is possible that it gave birth to the stubbornness and intelligence of the Black Sea that we are accustomed to. In this context, the struggle for survival is based on working without discrimination of gender, process and age.
The tea and seafood duo required the people of the Black Sea to be intertwined with nature, and the regional economy was shaped by the rough terrain and rough waves. In this seasonal cycle, the tea cutting season and the fish season follow each other. However, the problems in tea and seafood in the last decade have begun to be felt regionally and cause sociological changes. In this context, the province of Rize has been chosen to design solutions that a mixed public and social-cultural structure can bring to regional problems through sustainability through an aquaponic cyclical system.
Eutrophication1 was the first cause and overfishing was the second cause of the deterioration of the Black Sea ecosystem. Between 1950 and 1970, toric, Black Sea tuna, tuna and swordfish, which were at the top of the food chain in the Black Sea ecosystem, were overfished. The number of dolphins has dropped to around half a million due to entanglement in fishing nets, deliberate killing by fishermen, destruction of coastal ecosystems and pollution.
The Mediterranean monk seal is completely extinct in the Black Sea. With the disappearance of large fish and mammals at the top of the food chain, the number of fish that feed on plankton, which feeds on these creatures, exploded in the 1970s. This situation gave rise to trawling and overfishing in the 70s and 80s, and by the 90s the fish stocks in the Black Sea were starting to run out. In the 1960s and 1970s, the price of anchovy, which was thrown into the tea gardens as fertilizer, would always rise.2
Tea agriculture, which started in the 1930s in our country, provided important inputs for both the Eastern Black Sea Region and Turkey, and had an important share in increasing the welfare level of the region. In terms of tea production in Turkey, 65% of the existing tea agricultural areas are located in Rize, 21% in Trabzon, 11% in Artvin and 3% in Giresun-Ordu provinces. In parallel with the rapid increase in tea agricultural areas, the number of producers has also increased. The number of manufacturers, which was 11,900 in 1950, increased approximately 17 times to 204112 in 2001. 61% of these producers are located in Rize, 24% in Trabzon, 9% in Artvin, and 6% in Giresun-Ordu. After the 1990s, tea agriculture and producers have increasing problems. This situation also shows itself in the inter-provincial development ranking. Rize, which was in the 7th development ranking in 1980, dropped to 26th in 1986, 32nd in 1991, 38th in 2010 and 43rd in 2013.
When we look at this situation, it is seen that problems in tea production and quality go out of fertile agricultural lands, unconscious fertilization, the economic efficiency of the tea farms and the employment of illegal, uninsured and unconscious people, especially in Georgia.3
1- Increase in nutrients in an entire ecosystem or in certain parts of the ecosystem
2-“The Collapse of the Black Sea, Önder Cırık, http://www.acikbilim.com/2014/10/dosyalar/karadeniz-cokusu.html”
3- Bamboo as an Alternative Product for Solving the Problems in Tea Agriculture in the Black Sea Region, Devlet TOKSOY, Journal of Kafkas University Artvin Faculty of Forestry (2002), Issue 1, P.72-79
a.ku.a.po.nik [noun] in its most basic form, the method of growing consumable plant sources together with consumable aquatic products.
loop [noun] more than one repetition of any event.
Plants, and fish as prominently, are taken into a co-developed system, where they are brought up together in a polycultural environment for their mutual benefit. It is an integrated aquaculture technique in which closed circuit aquaculture system and hydroponic system are used together. Briefly, the water coming out of the fish tank is returned to the fish tank after passing through the filtration unit and plant beds. Mechanical filtration is used to remove fish excrement and feed residues, followed by biological filtration for the conversion of dissolved substances.
The aim is to reproduce the extinct fish species and various, high quality tea species in the Black Sea.
While designing the building, the targeted shape was monoblock and it was a single aesthetic mass. (Phase 1) Thus, a symbol or a sculptural appearance that can be perceived from a distance has been tried to be reinforced with a maximized sea-land view (Phase 2) and the modern setup of the façade that will reference history. While the façade is being constructed, laminated wooden arc-shaped struts surround the façade and form a grid base floor, forming the sub-structure of the eye-filling. (Stage 5) The wooden form that forms the facade parametrically has been shaped in various ways according to its purpose, creating the facade setup. (Stage 6)
CONSTRUCTION – STRUCTURAL LOGIC
The difficulties brought by the topography also show themselves in the field of construction. The structure is designed with laminated column, beam, floor and wall structural elements to overcome problems such as storage of material on site, workplace or climate-construction process. Supporting glulam columns with beams and creating floors and spaces with cross-laminated wooden flooring and walls were considered for a city like Rize where wood is easily accessible. It has been tried to overcome the difficulties brought by the topography with its conveniences such as fast assembly, modular manufacturing, transportation and storage.
Glulam columns consist of three stages. The interior part is made of carrier laminated woods, the second wood type with the highest oak strength, the middle part is designed as a composite material, the transition part with plaster laths to contribute to fire resistance and the outer part as laminated pine. The beams of 10X50 cm are designed from ash wood, which has a very high tensile strength.
The building is divided into 5 sections on the basis of floors, according to the desired needs. Basement floor, entrance on the ground floor, social-cultural areas on the 1st and 2nd floors, 3.4.5. municipal units on the floors and finally the roof garden. The entrance and roof gardens are jointly created at the bottom and at the top in order to host social-cultural events and provide venues for municipal events. In the conference hall on the ground floor, municipal events have also enabled many people to be held without the need for vertical circulation on other floors. On the first and second floors, there are areas where activities such as workshops, training courses, and library can be carried out for local people. These spaces have been tried to be supported with open and free assembly spaces and spaces where time can be spent in the style of exhibition cafes.
The municipality section, on the other hand, has been tried to be created from modules that are as transparent as possible with folding glass systems that can be opened and closed in the open office logic with units spread over 3 floors. On the 3rd and 4th floors, there are service units, archive and photocopy rooms, and on the 5th floor, there are the presidency, vice presidents, city council and parliament.
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
The municipality structure, designed together with its social facilities in the Ardeşen district of Rize, was designed in order to realize and improve the potential of the region as well as its physical disadvantages. Focusing on the awareness that the aquaponic system will bring to the region has been the starting point of the design idea of the building. For this purpose, a literature search was made on the characteristics of the system and the development and change that the Black Sea hinterland had undergone, and it was tried to be explained with diagrams and graphics. Rich nitrate wastes produced by fish constitute the nutritional need of tea plants and it is aimed to be the pioneer of the permaculture network in the region.
By integrating the pool systems into the entrance façade on the ground floor and considering suitable tea beds for the improvement of tea cultivation on the ground floor, it was thought to contribute sociologically to the environment of the building with its economic, ecological and socio-cultural units. As the environmental energy sustainability of the building, instead of generating electricity from solar energy, energy generation from waves was preferred.
Structural design of the building was made with modern advanced industrial laminated wood systems, aiming at the textural sustainability of the wooden material tradition provided by the place. In a region like the Black Sea, the warmth of wood has been sought out from residential architecture and different spatial constructs and forms have been sought.