Haarda i.[colloquially – where in Gaziantep region? - Where is it? the word used in the meaning of the general common usage name in other regions of Turkey: hangırda]
“There is a village there, far away, that village is our village. Almost all of us know the poem of Ahmet Kutsi Tecer, which begins with the lines "Whether we walk or not, but that village is our village". In the continuation of the poem; Even if we don't go to bed - even if we don't get up, from the far house that is "our", even if we don't hear - from the distant voice of "our" even if we don't get off - even if we don't get off - from the distant mountain that is "our" even if we don't come back - even if we don't return - our distant way is told. However, we have experienced over time that objects that move away from the senses tend to be forgotten. If a place is not visited, heard or reached, it naturally becomes deserted. In the first stage of the competition, understanding the ignored thing and interpreting it with a neighborhood phenomenon was tried to be discussed again in Gaziantep's Sarıt village (neighbourhood).
This phenomenon of oblivion has begun to be broken by reverse migration from the city to the village. Meanwhile, travelers stop and ask for a way or a place, and the question of where becomes commonplace.
The acceleration of urbanization in our country in the last 50 years has created the movement from rural areas to cities as internal migration waves. This situation still continues. However, in the following years, as the cities that hosted more than enough urban residents could not bear the burden of construction and density, the owners of capital, in other words, moved people who could migrate. In addition, the state supports this situation. The
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock gives a grant of 483 million TL to 16067 young farmers this year. This means 30.000 TL financial support per person. In 2016, 15000 young farmers started animal husbandry or agriculture in the arable basins they chose. These temporary or permanent reverse migration waves could sometimes put an artist from Istanbul in contact with an Aegean villager. It has been dreamed of people at the extreme points of the society to come together, both in the village of Sarit and in the neighborhood to be designed. Could an environment be created where a person who came to Gaziantep could live for a certain period of time or permanently and interact with Sarıt village? On the basis of previous projects, the policies of village institutes and village-city projects to train qualified personnel are formed spontaneously with this new wave of migration. It has been tried to deal with these potentials ecologically, economically and socially.
The aim is to design the neighborhood to be designed as a modern sustainable campus in a new structure that is connected to the village of Sarıt from one point and communicates with the locals.
“One of the most important changes related to migration in the 1995-2000 period is the change in migration from the city to the village. During this period, 20.06% of the population, that is, 1.342,518 people, migrated from the city to the village for various reasons. Thus, this number has approximately doubled compared to the previous period.” Doğuş University Journal, 11 (1) 2010, 77-86
Over the years, cities have encountered new waves of migration without digesting those who migrated from the village to the city. At this point; The urban structure has pushed back the surpluses within itself or dragged the other citizens who were negatively affected by these surpluses in search. As a result of this, attractive factors in urban areas have started to turn into push factors. Meanwhile, the decreasing population has led to an increase in the share of economic distribution in rural areas and to the emergence of new opportunities. The socio-economic (transportation, public services, etc.) transformation of the villages has also created new attraction areas for the villages.
When Gaziantep province is examined in this respect, it has an equal population in terms of immigration and immigration, and it is one of the provinces with the lowest net migration rate compared to its total population.
GAZIANTEP – SARIT VILLAGE NEIGHBORHOOD
In the province of Gaziantep, where 95% of its soil is suitable for agriculture, in Sarıt village, various agricultural productions are carried out, especially peanuts, grapes, olives and peppers. The most effective factor in this is the transition from the Mediterranean climate to the Eastern Mediterranean climate in the region. Summers are hot and dry, and winters are not too cold. Due to its location, it is only 28 km from the center and is accessible by public bus and automobile. One of the advantages of the village is that it takes only 23 minutes to reach the airport from the airport. It is a settlement that has a good balance of serenity and distance to modern life. The Haarda project is also designed on an area of 88,500 m2, which is connected by road on three sides, extends in the direction of north-south axes, articulates with the village with Sarıt Secondary School, connects to the village with the east road entrance, and communicates with the center of the village through the west road entrance.
1- Natural Areas
Each neighborhood has natural open spaces around it and is sensitive to existing terrain conditions and local ecology. Neighborhoods should be designed to include existing or developed natural and protected areas or as a response to natural features. This; may include greenways, wetlands, waterways, woodlands, and native vegetation.
The neighborhood, which will be designed to be surrounded by wide plains and agricultural lands around Sarıt village, has created a relationship with nature. Especially the arable fields with trees in the north of the area are in visual communication with the user in the openings of the streets. The green areas in the land are also considered as integrated with agriculture.
2- Access Network
Each neighborhood should provide its residents with transportation options to enable them to get from one place to another or to other neighborhoods. Streets, walking and cycling tracks should be connected to each other in a way that encourages active travel. Traffic and parking areas should be placed in such a way that they do not dominate the texture of the neighborhood.
Vehicle traffic is surrounded by the road located on the east and west of the project area and extending along the north-south axis. In addition to this traffic, pedestrian and cyclist trails were added to provide ease of access from the periphery. In the area where the center and residential units meet in the inner park, this access network connects the two side axes.
3- Housing Facilities and Selection
Neighbourhood; Buildings should provide a mix of unit sizes and housing types. Housing options should offer opportunities in the neighborhood such as different scales of income, family type and place of aging. It is aimed to position the high-density houses close to the center and to create a homogeneous building block with different housing types on each island. For this, a relationship was established between the degree of proximity to the village and the number of floors, and the settlement of the houses was made. There are single-storey, short-term accommodation rooms designed for young people whose lives are mobile, at the entrance of the neighborhood to the area closest to the village. The heights of the blocks increase gradually and reach their highest point in the center of the neighborhood.
4- Holistic Urban Form and Density
Every neighborhood should be designed to use the land wisely and efficiently. High-density residential areas should be supported by commercial, institutional areas and public transportation. There must be a transition from high-density areas to low-density areas. The overall density should be responsive to a variety of uses and viable public transport.
The neighborhood form had to be considered by considering the 30-meter difference between the ends of the land. For this, the residential buildings were placed in the middle part of the land and in the south in a way that interacts with Sarıt village. The islands that require calm and the areas containing social structures are staggered to the north of the land. In order to harmonize the building density with the village, the number of floors in the two southernmost blocks has been reduced.
5- Integrated Parks and Community Spaces
Every neighborhood should offer quality public spaces, landscaping areas where leisure can be enjoyed in various ways. Open spaces should be communicative and connected with each other. Public spaces should be easily accessible and different age groups and activities should be able to coexist. Active and passive spaces should bring users together, socialize, regenerate and be physically active and spend time outdoors.
The agricultural land, which is located in the center of the land in a thin and long form, is planned to be preserved and used as a park and community space. The interconnectedness and variety of green areas, their connection with pedestrian roads, and the green appearance of the roads were important factors. It was desired to replace the courtyard in the form of Gaziantep residential architecture by transforming small parks into various functions.
6- Safe and Protected Neighborhoods
The neighborhood should be designed to increase the health, peace, neighborhood security and social interaction of its citizens. Streets should be designed with the safety of pedestrians and cyclists in mind. Neighborhood residents should be able to access public spaces by knowing their neighbors, playing games comfortably, walking, riding a bicycle.
In a period where security is provided by cameras today, the aim is to design the building units with balconies, bay windows and wide viewing angles as much as possible and to create an environment where users can ensure their own safety. This will both increase socialization and, most importantly, increase trust and make the person safe in the neighborhood. One of the advantages of this small settlement in Sarit village is that it consists of people who know each other, as in every village.
7- Various Land Uses
Neighborhoods should have a variety of land uses and densities that can support living, working, learning and playing activities. Areas with high land use and density should be located around the transportation network and should have the capacity to meet people's daily work and needs and be easily accessible. Vertical agricultural fields, wind turbines, seed library, art galleries, health-education units, workshops and other auxiliary social needs are located in the center of the neighborhood. This diversity is not limited only to the boundaries of the neighborhood, but it is desired to be related to the village and the communicator from one end.
8- Flexible and Low Impact Neighborhoods
Each neighborhood must be designed to be resistant to changes in growth rates, demographics, regional context, energy price changes, climate change, and occupants' needs and preferences, as well as adaptation to changing conditions. Neighborhoods should be planned in such a way that buildings, public spaces and facilities are efficiently adapted as necessary to accommodate various future uses.
The dream of the first phase project was that the neighborhood would be self-sufficient. A structure that can run its own internal cycle as both energy and local food and has an economy on a micro scale has been mentioned. The collection of waste garbage, the use of wind energy, the reserve and reuse of rain-grey water will reveal the ecological, economic and social factors for a sustainable neighborhood.
Each neighborhood should have distinct identities that increase community pride and create a sense of belonging. Destinations, focal points, natural elements, public art, and other symbols of society coexist at key intersections and other key points. Architectural and site plan design should be creative and create a feeling when viewed with relations between buildings and open space, housing dimensions, street widths, island sizes, material selections and architectural character.
Designed as a modern interpretation of the traditional Turkish house and streets, the district has a different identity with its ecology and location. The diversity of its users and the experiences arising from the interaction created with the village are aimed at creating a different identity.
The green area, which is currently on the site and extends along the north-south axis, is preserved and extended, and its elevations in the z plane are replaced with navigation ramps and stairs, forming a green backbone of the main project. Around this green element, housing units (yellow area) close to the village and other social facilities (pink area) in the northern part are grouped.
Despite the dimensional disproportion of the building blocks in the first phase with their surroundings and the negative situation created by the closed form, there was a roof with different functions and a free ground floor area shaped by the users as a design plus. By extending the form and dividing it into two, the scale unity between the village-user structures was tried to be achieved.
After the change of the module, which is exactly 59 meters in diameter, it is aimed to form an inner courtyard by dividing it into two modules with a length of 29.5 meters. The bond between the forms is based on the material integrity and shaping criteria between each other. The blocks have gradual transitions with their heights and the shapes they take.